Helen Sampson joined the Seafarers International Research Centre in 1999. She became a Senior Research Associate in 2001 and Deputy Director of SIRC in 2002. In September 2003 Helen was appointed as SIRC’s Director. Helen has a background in policy-related teaching and research. Her first degree is in Sociology and she holds a Postgraduate Certificate of Education PGCE (Economics and Social Studies – FE/Secondary) and a PhD.
In 2013 Helen was appointed as specialist advisor to the House of Commons' Transport Committee. Previously, in 2010, Helen was invited to join the European Commission's Task Force on Maritime Employment and Competitiveness chaired by Sir Robert Coleman. The objective of the task force was to consider the employment conditions of EU seafarers and the competitiveness of the European fleet.
At SIRC Helen’s research interests have developed in relation to multinational crewing, training, women seafarers, the impact of changing technology on seafarers’ work, issues of regulation, family life, globalisation, and seafarer health and safety.
Helen is an active supporter of the International Sociological Association and is a member of the RC30 board which focuses upon the sociology of work.
Helen was an external examiner for the World Maritime University, Sweden from 2010-2012, and is a member of the Editorial Board of Przestrzen Spoleczna (Social Space) international journal.
Awards & Nominations
Advisory Roles & Other
In the Media
Industry Related Publications
Chapters in Books/Articles Reproduced in Books
Awards & Nominations
International Seafarers and transnationalism in the twenty first century has been nominated for the 2014 Maritime Foundation ‘Mountbatten Maritime Award’.
International Seafarers and transnationalism in the twenty first century won the 2014 Thinking Allowed Award for Ethnography presented by the BBC in partnership with the British Sociological Association
'Corporate Social Responsibility and the Quality of Seafarers Accommodation and Recreational Facilities' (Ellis, Sampson) won the ‘Best Paper Award’ at IMISS 2013 – 2nd International Maritime and Near Miss Reporting Conference.
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Advisory Roles & Other
2013 to present, Specialist Advisor to the UK House of Commons’ Transport Select Committee.
2013 to present, Scientific Advisor to RISKOP Stord Haugesund University (Norway)
2010-2012 External Examiner World Maritime University Sweden
2012 member of Programmatic review panel for the National Maritime College Ireland
2010 European Task Force on Maritime Employment and Competitiveness (chair Sir Robert Coleman)
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In the Media
Account of life onboard ship is nominated for major award, Abergavenny Chronicle, 16 October 2014
Difficulties of Life on an Ocean Freighter Described by Professor, Shipping News, 14 October 2014
Webinar Conversation ‘Life Aboard a Modern Cargo Ship’, NAMMA (The North >American Maritime Ministry Association), 13 October 2014
BSA Network No. 117, p23, Summer 2014
Plain Sailing, Times Higher Education (THE), 19 June 2014
30 April 2014, The Ethnography Award Winner, Thinking Allowed, BBC Radio 4.
Author wins landmark BBC award, Manchester University Press.
New Book on Seafarers by Leading Expert, NAMMA (The North American Maritime Ministry Association) September 2013
Industry brought to book, Nautilus International Telegraph, May 2013
Women Seafarers, 13 May 2013
Book Launch, 11 April 2013
Unease over 'potential health crisis', TradeWinds, p 38, 3 July 2009
Crew conditions deteriorate, Tradewindsnews.com, 19 October 2006
Isolating the enemy at sea, Fairplay, June 2005
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Sampson, H. (2014) International seafarers and transnationalism in the twenty-first century, ISBN 978-0-7190-9553-5, Paperback (see Awards).
Sampson, H. (2013) International Seafarers and transnationalism in the twenty-first century, Manchester University Press (MUP), ISBN 978-0-7190-8868-1, Hardback (see Awards).
Belcher, P., Lane A.D., Sampson H., Thomas, M., Veiga, J., Zhao, M. (2003) Women Seafarers: Global Employment Policies and Practices, Geneva: ILO, ISBN 92-2-113491-1.
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Alderton, T., Bloor, M., Kahveci, E., Lane, T., Sampson, H., Thomas, M., Winchester, N., Wu, B., Zhao, M. (2004) The global seafarer: living and working conditions in a globalized industry, 224 pp, ILO, Geneva, ISBN 92-2-112713-3.
James, P., Walters, D., Sampson, H., Wadsworth, E. (2014) Protecting workers through supply chains: Lessons from two construction case studies, Economic and Industrial Democracy 0143831X14532296, first published on May 28, 2014 as doi:10.1177/0143831X14532296
Sampson, H., Walters, D., James, P., Wadsworth, E. (2014) 'Making headway? Regulatory compliance in the shipping industry', Social & Legal Studies, DOI: 10.1177/0964663914529684 online 23 April, published July, 23(3) 383–402.
Bloor, M., Sampson, H., Gekara, V. (2013) 'Global governance of training standards in an outsourced labor force: The training double bind in seafarer license and certification assessments', Regulation & Governance, DOI: 10.1111/rego.12042.
Bloor, M., Sampson, H., Baker, S., Dahlgren, K. (2013) 'Useful but no Oracle: reflections on the use of a Delphi Group in a multi-methods policy research study', Qualitative Research, DOI: 10.1177/1468794113504103.
Gekara, V., Acejo, I., Sampson, H. (2013) 'Re-imagining Global Union Representation Under Globalisation: A Case of Seafaring Labour and the Nautilus International Cross-border Merger, Global Labour Journal, 4 (2): 167-185. Available at: http://digitalcommons.mcmaster.ca/globallabour/vol4/iss3/1.
Bloor, M., Sampson, H., Baker, S., Dahlgren, K. (2013) 'The instrumental use of technical doubts: Technological controversies, investment decisions and air pollution controls in the global shipping industry' Science and Public Policy, doi: 10.1093/scipol/sct050.
Bloor, M., Sampson, H., Baker, S., Walters, D., Dahlgren, K., Wadsworth, E., James, P. (2013) 'Room for Manoeuvre? Regulatory Compliance in the Global Shipping Industry', Social & Legal Studies, 22 (2): 171-189.
Sampson, H. (2013) 'Globalisation, Labour Market Transformation and Migrant Marginalisation: the Example of the Transmigrant Seafarers in Germany', Journal of International Migration and Integration, 14 (4): 751-765, DOI 10.1007/s12134-012-0266-0.
Sampson H., Bloor, M. (2012) 'The effectiveness of Global Regulation in the shipping industry: a critical case study', Revista Latino-americana de Estudos do Trabalho (RELET), 17(28) : 45-72.
Tang, L., Sampson, H. (2012) 'The interaction between mass media and the internet in non-democratic states: the case of China', Media Culture & Society, 34(4): 457-471.
Sampson, H. (2011) 'Spilling oil, spilling blood: Cost and corporate decision making concerning safe working practices', Policy and Practice in Health and Safety, Vol 9, Issue 1, pp17-32.
Gekara, V., Bloor., Sampson, H. (2011) 'Computer-based Assessment in Safety-Critical Industries: The Case of Shipping', Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 63(1): 87-100.
Sampson, H., Gekara, V.O., Bloor, M. (2011) 'Water-tight or sinking? A consideration of the standards of the contemporary assessment practices underpinning seafarer licence examinations and their implications for employers', Maritime Policy & Management, 38: 1, 81-92, DOI: 10.1080/03088839.2010.533713.
Bloor, M., Fincham, B., Sampson, H. (2010) ‘Unprepared for the worst: risks of harm for qualitative researchers’, Methodological Innovations Online, 5(1): 45-55.
Ellis, N., Bloor, M., Sampson, H. (2010) 'Patterns of Seafarer Injuries', Maritime Policy & Management, 37(2): 121-128 ISSN 0308-8839.
Bloor, M., Sampson, H. (2009) 'Regulatory enforcement of labour standards in an outsourcing industry: the case of the shipping industry', Work Employment and Society, vol 23 no 4, 711-726.
Sampson, H., Bloor, M., Fincham, B. (2008) 'A Price Worth Paying? Considering the 'Cost' of Reflexive Research Methods and the Influence of Feminist Ways of 'Doing', Sociology, 42(5): 919-933.
Sampson, H. and Bloor, M. (2007) 'When Jack gets out the box: the problems of regulating a global industry', Sociology, 41(3): 551-569.
Sampson, H., Schroeder, T. (2006) ‘In the Wake of the Wave: globalization, networks, and the experiences of transmigrant seafarers in Northern Germany’, Global Networks, 6(1): 61-80.
Sampson, H. (2005) ‘Left High and Dry? The lives of women married to seafarers in Goa and Mumbai’, Ethnography, 6(1): 61-85 .
Wu, B., Sampson, H. (2005) ‘Reconsidering the Cargo Sector’s Seafarer Labor Market: A 21st Century Profile of Global Seafarers’, Ocean Yearbook, 19: 357-380, Chicago: University of Chicago.
Sampson, H. (2004) ‘Navigating the waves: the usefulness of a pilot in qualitative research’ Qualitative Research, 4(3): 383-402.
Sampson, H. (2004) ‘Romantic Rhetoric, Revisionist Reality: the effectiveness of regulation in maritime training’ Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 56(2): 245-267.
Sampson, H., Wu, B. (2003) ‘Compressing Time and Constraining Space: The Contradictory Effects of ICT and Containerisation on International Shipping Labour’ International Review of Social History, 48: 123-152.
Sampson, H., Thomas, M. (2003) ‘The social isolation of seafarers: causes, effects, and remedies’ International Maritime Health, 54 (1-4): 58-67.
Thomas, M., Sampson, H., Zhao, M. (2003) ‘Finding a balance: companies, seafarers and family life’ Maritime Policy Management Vol. 30, No. 1, pp59-76.
Sampson, H., Thomas, M. (2003) ‘Lone Researchers at Sea: gender, risk and responsibility’ Qualitative Research, 3(2): 165-189.
Sampson, H. (2003) ‘Transnational Drifters or Hyperspace Dwellers: An exploration of the lives of Filipino seafarers aboard and ashore’ Ethnic and Racial Studies Vol. 26 No. 2 pp 253-277. Reproduced in H Beynon and T Nichols (Eds) (2006) Patterns of Work in the Post Fordist Era, Fordism and Post-Fordism, Volume II, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 612-636, ISBN 1-84542-324-0.
Sampson, H., Zhao, M. (2003) ‘Multilingual crews: communication and the operation of ships’ World Englishes Vol. 22 No. 1, pp31-45.
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Sampson, H. (2013) 'Enduring the Waves: Life of a modern-day Seafarer', Global Dialogue, International Sociological Association (ISA) 3(5).
Bloor, M., Baker, S., Sampson, H., Dahlgren, K. (2013), ‘Effectiveness of international regulation of pollution controls: the case of the governance of ship emissions’, Cardiff University, ISBN: 1-900174-44-8, online at www.sirc.cf.ac.uk.
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Bloor, M., Baker, S., Sampson, H., Dahlgren, K. (2013) ‘Issues in the Enforcement of Future International Regulations on Ships’ Carbon Emissions’, Cardiff University, ISBN: 1-900174-45-6, online at www.sirc.cf.ac.uk.
Bloor, M., Baker, S., Sampson, H., Dalhgren, K. (2012) 'Effectiveness of international regulation of pollution controls: the case of the governance of ship emissions - Interim Report', SIRC Publication, December.
Ellis N., Sampson, H., Acejo, I., Tang, L., Turgo, N., Zhao, Z. (2012) 'Seafarer Accommodation on Contemporary Cargo Ships', SIRC Publication, December, ISBN: 1-900174-43-X.
Bailey, N., Ellis, N., Sampson H. (2012) 'Exploring differences in perceptions of risk, and its management, amongst personnel directly associated with the operation of ships', SIRC Publication, April, ISBN: 1-900174-42-1.
Sampson, H., Tang, L. (2011) 'New Shipboard Technology and Training Provision for Seafarers', SIRC Publication, October, ISBN: 1-900174-41-3.
Bailey, N., Ellis, N., Sampson, H. (2010) 'Safety and Perceptions of Risk: A Comparison Between Respondent Perceptions and Recorded Accident Data', SIRC Publication, October, ISBN: 1-900174-38-3.
Bailey, N., Ellis, N., Sampson, H. (2010) 'SIRC Report to the PYA on Living and Working Conditions Aboard Yachts', commissioned by the Professional Yachtsmen's Association, Aug.
Bailey, N., Ellis, N., Sampson, H. (2008) 'Training and Technology Onboard Ship: How seafarers learned to use the shipboard Automatic Identification System (AIS)', SIRC Publication, July, ISBN: 1-900174-34-0.
Ellis, N., Sampson, H. (2008) 'The Global Labour Market for Seafarers Working Aboard Merchant Cargo Ships 2003', SIRC Publication, June, ISBN: 1-900174-35-9.
Bailey, N., Ellis, N., Sampson, H. (2007) 'Perceptions of Risk in the Maritime Industry: Personal Injury', SIRC Publication, October, ISBN: 1-900174-32-4.
Bailey, N., Ellis, N., Sampson, H. (2006) 'Perceptions of Risk in the Maritime Industry: Ship Casualty', SIRC: Cardiff University, August, ISBN: 1-900174-29-4.
Winchester, N., Sampson, H., Shelly, T. (2006) ‘An Analysis of Crewing Levels: Findings from the SIRC Global Labour Market Study’, SIRC: Cardiff University, ISBN: 1-900174-27-8.
Ellis, N., Sampson, H., Aguado, J. C., Baylon, A,, Del Rosario, L., Lim, Y. F., Veiga, J. (2005), What Seafarers think of CBT, SIRC: Cardiff University, ISBN: 1-900174-28-6.
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Walters, D.R., Wadsworth, E.J.K., Sampson, H., James, P. (2012) 'The Limits of Influence: the role of supply chains in influencing health and safety management in two sectors', report submitted to the IOSH Research Committee, www.iosh.co.uk/research reports.
Bloor, M., Fincham, B., Sampson, H. (2008) QUALITI (NCRM) Commissioned Inquiry Into the Risk to Well-being of Researchers in Qualitative Research, Cardiff: QUALITI.
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Sampson, H., Ellis, N., Gould. E., Tang, L., Turgo, N., Zhao, Z. (2012) ‘Safety and Shipping 1912-2012’, Report commissioned by Allianz which underpins their subsequent publication ‘Safety and Shipping 1912-2012: From Titanic to Costa Concordia, an insurer’s perspective from Allianz Global Corporate and Specialty’ available from Allianz GCS.
Bloor, M., Sampson. H., Baker, S. (2011) Written evidence to the House of Commons Transport Select Committee Inquiry on Sulphur Emissions by Ships.
Sampson, H. (2007) Report to EMSA on the training capacity of current labour supply countries utilised by operators of EU-flagged vessels (restricted access).
Sampson, H. (2009) EMSA-commissioned study of computer-based assessment in association with the issue of seafarer licences (restricted access via EMSA).
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Sampson, H. (2014) 'The Globalization of a Labour Market: The Case of Seafarers', Globalization in Practice, Nigel Thrift, Adam Tickell, Steve Woolgar, William H. Rupp , (eds.) Oxford University Press (OUP), ISBN: 978-09-921262-0 (hbk.), ISBN: 978-09-921263-7 (pbk.), pp 92-96.
Sampson, H., Thomas, M. (2013) ‘Lone Researchers at Sea: Gender, Risk and Responsibility’, Barry Smart, Kay Peggs, Joseph Burridge, (eds.) Observation Methods: Benchmarks in Social Research Methods, Sage, ISBN: 978-1-4462-0811-3, pp 165-189.
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Sampson, H. (2006) ‘Transnational drifters or hyperspace dwellers: an exploration of the lives of Filipino seafarers aboard and ashore’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 26 (2), March, 253-277, reproduced in H Beynon and T Nichols (Eds) (2006) Patterns of Work in the Post Fordist Era, Fordism and Post-Fordism, Volume II, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 612-636, ISBN 1-84542-324-0.
Thomas, M., Sampson, H., Zhao, M. (2005) ‘Finding a balance: companies, seafarers and family life’, International Maritime Transport:Perspectives, edited by H Leggate, J McConville, A Morvillo, Routledge, January 2005, pp 89-109.
Sampson, H. (2014) 'Seafaring stories with very different destinations', The Guardian Book Blog.
Sampson,H. (2012) ‘Technology at sea goes global’, ITF Seafarers’ Bulletin 2012 (26), 17-18.
Sampson, H. (2011) Just messing about on boats? What’s to like about work aboard Yachts?, Yachting Matters, The Professional Yachtsman’s Superyacht Magazine, Edition 20 Spring/Summer 2011, www.colinsquirepublishing.com
Sampson, H. (2009) ‘The modern day challenges to seafarers’ health’, The Sea, London: Mission to Seafarers, Issue 197, Jan/Feb, pp4-5.
Sampson, H. (2008) 'Speaking up for better on-board welfare', The Sea, London: Mission to Seafarers, Issue 191, Jan/Feb pp4-5.
Sampson, H. (2006) 'Why we should talk about swimming pools', The Sea, London: Mission to Seafarers, Issue 184, Nov/Dec pp4-5.
Sampson, H. (2006) 'Learning at sea', The Sea, London: Mission to Seafarers, Issue 179, Jan/Feb, pp4-5.
Sampson, H. (2004) ‘Global wage for global workers’, The Sea, London: Mission to Seafarers, Issue 167, Jan/Feb, pp4-5.
Sampson, H. (2003) ‘Authority and Accidents: The role of power relations and social interaction in accidents and incidents at sea’, Seaways, pp4-7.
Sampson, H. (2002) ‘Destructive obedience and the importance of seafarer training’, The Sea, London: Mission to Seafarers, Issue 160, Nov/Dec, pp4-5.
Sampson, H., Thomas, M. (2000) ‘The modern approach to leisure and recreation aboard merchant ships: do it yourself!’, The Sea, London: Mission to Seafarers, Issue 146, Jul/Aug.
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Sampson, H. (2014) ‘International Seafarers and transnationalism in the twenty-first century’, Reviewer meets Reviewed Seminar, Goldsmiths University of London, The British Museum, 20 November.
Sampson, H. (2014) 'A broader understanding of health and safety', Human & Social Factors Keynote lecture, Lloyd’s Register Foundation International Technical Colloquium 2014, The Impact of Research Funded by the Foundation: Enhancing the Safety of Critical Infrastructure Important to Society, Southampton Marine and Maritime Institute, 3-5 September.
Sampson, H. (2014) 'Out of Sight, out of Mind? The Industry Approach to Seafarers' Health and Welfare', Keynote Lecture, The Health and Welfare of Seafarers: Past, Present and Prospects Conference, Maritime Historical Studies Centre, University of Hull, 30 January.
Sampson, H. (2014) 'Lives of Exclusion: The Experiences of Contract Workers at Sea', Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, National University of Singapore, 20 January.
Ellis, N., Sampson, H. (2013) 'Corporate Social Responsibility and the Quality of Seafarers Accommodation and Recreational Facilities', IMISS 2013 - Proceedings of the International Scientific Meeting for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Shipping, 2nd International Maritime Incident and Near Miss Reporting Conference, Maritime Center Vellamo, Kotka, Finland, 11-12 June, ISBN 978-951-29-5618-0, 91-109 (see Awards).
Sampson, H. (2013) ‘Multicultural crews: effective communication and safe manning’, The 16th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 14-15 May.
Sampson, H. (2012) 'An interim report from a study of ship emissions undertaken at SIRC', Sustainability and Shipping Seminar organised by the centre for Business Relationships Accountability, Sustainability and Society (BRASS), Norwegian Church, Cardiff Bay, 29 May.
Sampson H., (2012) ‘Assessing new shipboard technology & training provision for seafarers’, The 5th Manning & Training in India Conference, Mumbai, India, 19-20 April.
Sampson, H. (2011) ‘Maritime careers: recruiting and retaining women seafarers’, The 14th European Manning & Training Conference, Black Sea Crewing, Istanbul, Turkey, 12-13 May.
Sampson, H. (2011) 'Design and Wellbeing: How Ships Impact on Performance', The 2nd IMarEST Marine Failure Conference 2011, London, 3-7 April.
Sampson, H. (2010) ‘Seafarer Welfare in the 21st Century’ The Nautical Institute West of Scotland Branch Seminar: 2010 year of the Seafarer Challenges and Opportunities, The Tall Ship, Glasgow Harbour, Scotland, 21 May.
Sampson, H. (2010) ‘Globalization, labour market transformation, and the marginalisation of transmigrant seafarers in the twenty-first century’, XV11 ISA (International Sociological Association) World Congress of Sociology, Gothenburg, Sweden, 11-17 July.
Sampson, H. (2010) 'Undertaking Maritime Related Social Science Research', Keynote Address, The International Seminar on Maritime Research in Academia & Industries, Chennai, India, 6 February.
Sampson, H. (2009) Keynote Speaker, International Maritime English Conference (IMEC), University of Szcecin, Poland, 6-8 October.
Bloor, M., Sampson, H. (2009) ‘Regulatory enforcement of labour standards in a globalised industry: the case of the shipping industry’, British Sociological Association Annual Conference, Cardiff, 16-18 April.
Sampson, H. (2009) ‘Pressures on safety: the implications of outsourcing in the maritime industry’, CWERC Paradoxes of the supply chain and workers' health and safety Conference, Cardiff University, 3 March.
Bloor, M., Sampson, H. (2007) ‘An alternative to the concept of stress as the linking mechanism between work and ill-health?’, Interdisciplinary.net, 6th Global Conference on Making Sense of Health, Illness and Disease, Oxford 9-11 July.
Sampson, H., Wu, B. (2007) ‘Thoughts on safety: the views of Chinese seafarers’, SIRC Symposium 2007, Cardiff University, 4-5 July, ISBN 1-900174-31-6
Sampson, H. (2007) ‘Seafaring: A Third World Occupation?’, Proceedings of the 10th European Manning and Training Conference, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 23-24 May.
Bloor, M., Fincham, B., Sampson, H. (2006) ‘Dangerous Fieldwork: an inquiry for the ESRC National Centre of Research Methods’ and ‘Gender aspects of dangerous fieldwork’ (combined) ESRC Research Methods Festival, St Catherine's College, Oxford, 17-20 July.
Sampson, H., Thomas, M., (2005) ‘Skilled Seafarer shortage: Could Women be the Answer?’, LSM 8th European Manning and Training Conference, Questioning the opportunities and challenges of the future, Riga, Latvia, 10-11 May.
Sampson, H. (2004) discussant at the 7th International Conference on Philippine Studies (ICOPHIL 7) on ‘The Filipino Seafarer: Governance, Globalization and the Human Element at Sea’, Leiden University, The Netherlands, 16-19 June.
Sampson, H., (2004) ‘Avoiding accidents, safeguarding seafarers: an exploration of the erosion of safety standards at sea’, The Anglo-Eastern Seminar, Mumbai, India, 18-19 February.
Sampson, H., (2003) ‘Powerful unions vulnerable workers: the representation of seafarers in the global labour market’, Brazilian Congress of Anthropologists and Sociologists (ANPOCS).
Sampson, H., (2003) ‘A report on the research findings of an international pilot study of merchant officer training that was completed in March 2003 and took place in the Philippines, Singapore and the UK’, the 5th Manning and Training Conference, Future challenges and expectations in this every changing world.
Sampson, H., (2003) ‘Breaking away’, Manchester Metropolitan University, ESRC Seminar Series: Global Society.
Sampson, H., (2002) ‘Tyrants and Teamwork: The role of Power Relations and Social Interaction in Accidents and Incidents at Sea’, MARTECH 2002, 5th International Conference & Exhibition, Maritime Accidents, Is Simulation the Answer? 18-20 September, Singapore Polytechnic.
Sampson, H., Thomas, M., (2002) ‘Health and Safety at Sea: Social Factors a Neglected Dimension’, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Human Factors on Board (ISHFOB), Bremen, ISBN 3-00-008365-0.
Sampson, H. (2008) Review of ‘Flagging Standards – Globalisation and Environmental, Safety, and Labour Regulations at Sea’ by Elisabeth R. DeSombre. The MIT Press, London, 2006, xi +308 pp., ISBN 0 262 54190 4 in British Journal of Industrial Relations (BJIR) an International Journal of Employment Relations, 46, 4, 822-823, ISSN 0007-1080 (print), 1467- 8543 (online), ww3.interscience.wiley.com
Bloor M, Kahveci E, Sampson H, Thomas M (2001) ‘Worse things happen at sea: safety rules and procedures on merchant cargo ships’, Work, Employment & Society Conference, University of Nottingham, 11-13 September.
Thomas, M., Sampson, H., Zhao, M., (2001) ‘Behind the Scenes: Seafaring and Family Life’, SIRC Symposium Proceedings 2, Cardiff: SIRC, 117-143, ISBN 1-900174-16-2.
Sampson H., and Zhao M., (2000) Jobs, Jokes, and Jibes: the Importance of Effective Communication in the Operation of Ships with Multi-ethnic Crews, IMLA WOME 2A Dalian, China, 15-20 October.
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